The opening of civil aviation in the Three Gorges area and the construction history of Yichang Civil Aviation Airport

On October 20, 1996, Huanglong Temple in Yiting District of Yichang City, the sun shines on the earth, and the cheerful music highlights the expression of people's excitement and joy, a warm and grand atmosphere. Li Peng, then Premier of the State Council, and Vice Premier Zou Jiahua and State Councilor Li Guixian made a special trip to Yichang to cut the ribbon for the newly built Yichang Sanxia Airport. The completion and operation of this modern civil aviation airport will play a huge role in the smooth construction of the Yangtze River Three Gorges water conservancy and hydropower hub, the expansion and development of Yichang City and the establishment of an international metropolis, with incalculable and far-reaching impact.

However, the opening of civil aviation routes in the Three Gorges region of the Yangtze River and the corresponding construction of airports in Yichang are not from today. The historical track may not be well known to everyone. Let us introduce the old news from decades to readers. reference.

Civil aviation in the Three Gorges region of the Yangtze River opened a direct route between Yichang and Shanghai seventy-five years ago.

Due to its topographical characteristics, the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River determines its important position in the main roads, but the water and land transportation environment is an abnormal obstacle. Yichang City is located at the boundary between the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River and the east exit of Xiling Gorge, ranking in the Yangtze River. The excellent port under the appropriate rapids on the left bank. Therefore, it is objectively proposed the necessity and urgency of starting civil aviation, and it is the rise of the establishment of Chinese airlines. On April 20, 1929, when Chinese airlines signed an airmail contract with American Airlines Development Corporation, some upper class people objected to the "loss of airspace sovereignty, obstructing national defense, and violating international public law." The government still drafted a national air traffic trunk line on April 25. The (South) Jingla (Sa) line has two stations in Wuchang and Yichang in Hubei Province and requires the completion of the airport in March of the following year. On July 16 of the same year, Sun Ke and representatives of American Airlines Development Corporation officially signed a $1 million air loan. On July 30, the US ship shipped five US aircraft to Shanghai.

On February 6, 1930, the air contract signed by China Airlines and the American Aircraft Transportation Company was denied by the Ministry of Military Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Communications and the Staff Headquarters. The US immediately sent representatives to Nanjing to negotiate with China Airlines to amend the contract. On July 8, the same year, Wang Boqun, the Minister of Communications and Chairman of the China Airlines, and Bolin, the representative of the US flight company, formally signed a contract with China Airlines in Shanghai and decided to form a joint stock limited company with a nominal capital of 10 million US dollars. Operating, headquartered in Shanghai.

On September 12 of the same year, China Airlines piloted the amphibious aircraft "Jiujiang" on the Shanghai-Hangzhou route. It was stopped on the Yangtze River in Yichang because it was blocked and failed to reach Chongqing. It was called "seaplane". . For the first time, the general public in Yichang was able to watch the plane at close range. The scene was very enthusiastic. Yichang “Eshan Zhongshan Daily” had made a special report.

After the three-day stay in Yichang, the “Jiujiang No.” returned to Hankou, and the Chinese airline immediately decided to suspend the flight plan and first open the Shanghai-Shanghai route. Wang Boqun learned that after the plane went to the obstruction, he inquired about the Sichuan authorities. According to the reply, the company said: "There is a strong endorsement of the flight business. However, it is a pioneering work, and the domestic military is not finished. The people of the Sichuanese are rare and misunderstood. Please send a member to explain, it is more appropriate." The Ministry of Communications immediately sent staff to Sichuan to deal with. On March 30, 1931, the Chinese airline "Hankou" aircraft flew directly from Shanghai to Yichang, and the Shanghai-Yician line was officially opened to traffic. The major newspapers of Shanghai, Nanjing and Han were reported in a prominent position.

The first flight of Yichang landed at the "water airport", and the Yichang people who were eager to see it were able to watch it close up and called it "seaplane".

For the first time, the Shanghai-Yician route, which was not yet built by Yichang, and the amphibious aircraft used in it, was selected as the “airport” near the Meifu Oil Depot (also known as the Yichang Port Authority). The schedule is from Shanghai to Feiyi on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays, and Yifei Shanghai on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. At that time, China Airlines had a total of five aircraft, each of which carried 6 passengers and 400 pounds of mail. China Airlines set up Yichang Office at No. 42 Binjiang Road to handle passenger and postal services, and set up a barge and mail warehouse near the airport. In the previous year, in January of the same year, the Yichang branch of the China Travel Service in the Yichang Office of Shanghai Commercial Savings Bank of Erma Road, has begun to handle the business of selling Yichang and airline tickets.

After the Ministry of Communications dispatched personnel to Sichuan to negotiate, the Hansong section of the Shanghai-Chengdu line sailed on October 21, 1931, passing through the three stations of Shashi, Yichang and Wanxian. The schedule is Wednesday, Saturday, and Thursday and Sunday. The "Jiujiang" and "Luoning" amphibious aircraft are frequently used for flight. The Shanghai-Chengdu Express express flight was opened immediately, Yichang was the Zhongcheng Station, and the schedule was Monday, Wednesday and Friday, and the Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday were down.

In order to expand its publicity and expand its business, the China Airlines Yichang Office, in addition to advertising in the Yichang National Daily, also cooperated closely with the Yichang Post Office to carry e-mails. In 1936, under the unified arrangement of the transportation department, the banks of Yichang jointly sold the award-winning “Airway Construction Bonds”, and the first prize was won on March 6th. Moreover, such activities are often carried out, thereby expanding the influence of Chinese airlines and further expanding the business.

The railway dam airport, which was built from the former site of the Yichang Railway Station of the former Chuanhan Railway, has greatly facilitated the visit of Yizhong and Yichang to the Yichang commercial and transportation and personnel travel.

In the winter of 1934 to the spring of 1935, Luo Jingxian, the commissioner of the 9th Administrative Inspectorate of Hubei Province and the county magistrate of Yichang County, was ordered to collect migrant workers in the name of Yichang County Government to convert the former site of Yichang Railway Station (called the railway dam) into an airport. It is called the railway dam airport. The airport is 580 meters wide and 735 meters long. The extended runway is 1000 meters long. It takes off and takes off the Italian two-wing aircraft. It is a Douglas aircraft for a period of time and can carry 20 passengers. At the same time, the airport was also used for military purposes. In 1936, the fifth team of the Chinese Air Force was stationed.

After the completion of the railway dam airport, senior officials and famous people from the central government frequently traveled. On April 12, 1936, Chiang Kai-shek was inspected by Yichang from Wuhan (when Yichang did not have a chairman), and he was away from Yi on the 15th. In December 1937, the commander of Jingyi Division, Cai Jilun, went to Wuhan to serve as the Guardian of Yichang and then returned to Yichang by plane. In May and October 1938, in order to rush to transport a large number of factories and equipment, raw materials and a large number of refugees evacuated from the coast to the rear of Yichang Port, the Ministry of Communications Lu Zufu (Minsheng Steamship Company Manager) Two times by plane to Yichang personally made an emergency dispatch command, thus successfully completing the transportation mission, known as "Yichang retreat." On August 1 of the same year, Wang Jingwei and his wife flew to Yichang from Wuhan, and then changed to a warship to go to Chongqing. On the eve of the Mid-Autumn Festival in September 1939, Song Qingling, Song Meiling, and Song Yuling were accompanied by Huang Renlin, director of the Military Commission's Field Service Corps, and Du Xiuting, deputy director, to Yichang to greet the anti-Japanese soldiers, and Jiang Yan, commander of the Jiang defense, and other Yichang military and political officials to meet at the airport. On the following day, the three sisters of the Song Dynasty returned by special plane.

After the "July 7" Incident in 1937, the headquarters of China Airlines was moved from Shanghai to Chongqing. At the end of the year, as Shanghai and Nanjing fell, the Hurong Line and Huhan Line flights were cancelled, but the number of Hanyi Line and Yiyi Line was increased. At that time, a large number of military and political officials and celebrities from all walks of life entered Sichuan via Yichang. Therefore, except for direct flights, Yichang’s air transportation tasks were extremely heavy. After the fall of Wuhan, the Hanyi Line was forced to stop, and the Yiyi Line not only insisted on flying but also was busier.

On January 24, 1938, the Japanese aircraft attacked Yichang for the first time. The railway dam airport was the first to bear the brunt. Six Chinese Air Force fighters on the tarmac were blown up, and more than 200 people were killed and injured in the airport. Since then, the Japanese plane has been bombarded more frequently, and it is difficult for China Airlines to operate normally and safely. The Yiyi route is forced to be grounded in May 1939. The railway dam airport has been closed, and the Chinese airline Yichang Office has been revoked. The civil aviation industry in the Three Gorges region of the Yangtze River also died.

When the Japanese military aircraft "Tianhuang" seized by the Chinese army flew through Yichang, the plan to land the railway dam airport failed to achieve, but it flew for three weeks in Yichang, paying tribute to Yichang soldiers and civilians.

After the fall of Wuhan, the Japanese army immediately encroached on the vast areas of the Jianghan Plain. In January 1939, the 13th Division of the Japanese Army invaded the Hanyi Highway east of the Weihe River (Hanjiang River). On January 31st, the Japanese army dispatched a military army air force "Tmugget" commander side long Watanabe Kataro Dazu led a part of the 9 bombers to cooperate with the ground forces to attack the sands of Jingmen County, the 44th Army of the Chinese Army Li Henong, head of the 1989 Eighth Third Regiment, commanded the whole group to shoot heavy machine guns at enemy planes. The "Emperor" was hit and fell on the east bank of the Weihe River about 10 kilometers northeast of Shayang Town. Watanabe Katahiro Daisuke and Fujita After six people parachuted, Xiongzang Shaozuo killed the boatman and grabbed a wooden boat in an attempt to escape from the Weihe River to the enemy-occupied area. The Chinese army intercepted by boat, and Watanabe fired on the Chinese army while throwing the documents and other things carried with him into the river. The Chinese army killed all six enemies. More than 70 documents, maps, diaries and pistols were collected. In the diary of Watanabe Kantaro, he had recorded the Japanese plane bombing Chongqing twice, and his saber was engraved with the words "The Emperor's Royal Gift".

After the Chinese Air Force Committee seized the Japanese military commander "The Emperor", the Chinese Aviation Commission immediately dispatched the 15th FireWire repair team headed by the Chief of the Air Force's Eighth Repair Factory in Chengdu, and was rushed to Shayang. It is a large aircraft, the interior equipment is very luxurious, and the head is white painted with the three characters of "The Emperor". Under the wings and on the back side of the fuselage painted the Japanese military emblem. Although the aircraft was injured by gunfire in many places, it can still be repaired. Therefore, the repair team took the principle of daytime concealment, night repair and strict confidentiality. After more than two months, it was finally repaired and it was possible to fly. I plan to fly to Yichang for an overhaul and fly to the Sichuan rear for a major overhaul.

On the day of Zhongchun in 1939, the elite pilot of the Aviation Commission, Li Yingmao, who was born in the South Korean Air Force, served in the Chinese Air Force and then served as the Commander-in-Chief of the Korean Air Force, arrived in Shayang and the fuel was delivered. In order to prevent the reconnaissance and interception of Japanese aircraft, it was reported to the Aviation Commission for approval. It was scheduled to fly to the Yichang Railway Dam Airport on a certain day and stayed in the airport for a comprehensive inspection. The next morning dawn continued to fly to Chongqing. Since the quick-drying paint could not be bought in Shayang, the Japanese Air Force logo and the "Tianhuang" were temporarily painted out with yellow mud. The yellow mud was washed away by air and steam, and the old appearance of the Japanese machine has been reproduced. In addition, the matter was strictly confidential and could not be contacted by the Yichang authorities. When the plane approached Yichang, the ground-based anti-aircraft fire was fired. The city launched an emergency air raid alarm and the airport was immediately closed. However, due to his superb flying skills and bravery, Li Yingmao, who is the captain of the pilot, has won a beach right on the Yangtze River due to the dry season. On the evening, I asked the relevant parties in Yichang to send blue and white quick-drying paints, and changed the Japanese Air Force military emblem on the plane into the Chinese Air Force military emblem, and changed the "Tian Huang" to "Sha Yang". On the next morning, the fog just dispersed and pushed the plane to the end of the beach. Li Yingmao drove the trophy "Tian Huang" ("Shayang") to increase the horsepower and force it to take off. After flying around Yichang for three weeks, and bidding farewell to Yichang soldiers and civilians, they flew straight to Chongqing along the Yangtze River.

The Japanese occupying forces bombed China’s capital, Chongqing and the rear, and built the airport as a transit base in Tumen. After the founding of New China, the Tumen Airport was converted into a civil aviation airport.

After the fall of Yichang City and its east area on June 12, 1940, the railway dam airport was immediately used by the Japanese army. Japan’s newly developed “zero-type” carrier-based fighter aircraft, which has the advantages of light weight, high speed, strong firepower, maneuverability and long-lasting power, arrived in Hankou to invade China in July, that is, Yichang was used as a transit base. Formation air strikes in Chongqing. Shortly thereafter, the 200th medium-sized attack aircraft of the 11th Air Force of the Japanese Army also used the Yichang Railway Dam Airport as a transit base to carry out long-term continuous bombing of the wartime rear of Chongqing and China. In order to smash the enemy’s criminal behavior, the Chinese Army’s Second Artillery Second Battalion of the Central Artillery in Sanyoudong was used on August 8th to use more than 20 volleys of the Pfoss gun, bombarding the railway dam airport and destroying the apron. The 12 Japanese planes on the ground forced the Japanese to stop using the airport from September. The Japanese army then forced the Chinese workers to build another airport in Tumen, 25 kilometers away from Yichang City, in 1941, and continued to attack and bombard Chinese combat troops, military installations and towns, but the enemy air force continued to be counterattacked by the Chinese army. In the Battle of Changsha in September 1941, the First Division of the Eighth Army of China attacked the Tumen Airport, which was just built by the enemy, destroying two enemy aircraft and destroying 10 aircraft. In the Battle of Western Hubei in May 1943, under the joint bombing of the Chinese and American air forces, the airport was seriously damaged. After Japan surrendered, the Tumen airport house was once used as the sixth (Yichang) high school building in Hubei Province, while the railway dam airport became a dam and was completely abandoned.

After the war, the call for the restoration of the Yichang Civil Aviation Airport was high. At the time, the Three Gorges sluice project was inspected by Dr. Savanch, a US dam expert, and contacted with the famous US Air Force general Chennade. The Three Gorges aerial survey was conducted by the US Feiqiwen Aerial Survey Company, and China sent planes to assist. As for the civil aviation industry, as late as June 1948, the Civil Aviation Administration of the Ministry of Communications sent personnel to Yichang to prepare for the air station, and its responsible person Tian Wenchao said: "Restoring the Yichang air station into a veto in Yichang." The price of soaring prices, Yichang people simply can not gather a large amount of construction funds, restore Yichang air station into a bubble.

In 1953, after the founding of the People's Republic of China, the Civil Aviation Administration of the Central Military Commission decided to rehabilitate the Tumen Airport. It was officially opened for civil aviation in the following year, and was used for domestic and international “transportation” models to take off and land day and night, and set up in Yichang City. The ticket office and the departure lounge are used to pick up and drop off passengers from the airport. In addition to the short-term closure of the airport from 1960 to 1963, there were three scheduled routes from Yichang to Wuhan, Yichang to Beijing and Yichang to Guangzhou during the 40 years. The model initially had "An Er" and "Yun Wu", followed by "Ir XIV", "Yun Qi", "Short 360" and so on. And undertake the indefinite routes, voyages, and flight missions from Yichang to all parts of the country, and charter flights at any time. It has made significant contributions to the passenger and cargo transportation and agricultural, forestry, chemical flying and tourism, tourism, first aid, measurement, prospecting, photography and other professional flights in the Three Gorges area and Yichang.

The completion and opening of the Yichang Three Gorges Airport opened a new chapter in the history of the Three Gorges area and the civil aviation industry in Yichang

When the Three Gorges Province was established in 1985, the Yichang Municipal People's Government proposed to build a large-scale modern airport, and proposed to locate the Huanglong Temple in Zhiting Town of Zhijiang County (later renamed Yiting District, Yichang City). The name of the site was originally called “Huanglong Temple”. airport". Approved by the State Council and the Central Military Commission in 1993, officially started in September 1994 and the name of the “Yichang Three Gorges Airport” was written by Li Peng. The airport is located at Huanglong Temple, 26 kilometers southeast of the city center. It is 60 kilometers away from the Three Gorges Dam under construction. It is adjacent to the Jiaoliu Railway in the east, the Yangtze River Golden Waterway in the south, the Yihuang Expressway in the north, and the high speed in the city center and the Three Gorges Dam area. The roads are connected and the traffic is very convenient.

The Three Gorges Airport is planned in accordance with the international civil aviation 4E standard and is constructed in accordance with the 4D standard. The airport covers an area of ​​10 square kilometers. The runway is 2,600 meters long and 45 meters wide. It can meet the takeoff and landing of major models such as Boeing 737, 757, 767 and A310-210, TV-154 and MD-82. The annual passenger throughput can reach 1.4 million. It is fast-moving and investment-saving, and is replaced by its all-qualified or excellent engineering quality, novel and beautiful design of buildings, modern and advanced computer management, especially with its relatively high altitude and good surrounding conditions. Threshold airport. It is not only a large airport that is in line with international standards, but also an important tourist attraction in Yichang. On October 28, 1996, the official opening of the “Yichang Three Gorges Airport” opened a new chapter in the history of the civil aviation industry in the Three Gorges area of ​​the Yangtze River and Yichang City.

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